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  • Theoretical grammar пәні бойынша Non-finite verbs

  • Noun. The category of case The category of case.

  • The Category of Case in Nouns

  • 3. Noun. The category of gender The category of gender.

  • 4. Verb. Notional parts of speech Verb as a Part of Speech

  • 5. Functional parts of speech

  • 6. Simple sentence Simple sentences are divided into two-member and one-member sentences. A two-member

  • Whenever he was asked that question, the old man who lived in that house answered that the earth was flat.

  • I think that he pocketed the mobile phone which was lying on the table.

  • 4. Causative-consecutive

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    Қожа Ахмет Ясауи атындағы Халықаралық қазақ-түрік университеті

    2015-2016 оқу жылы «Шетел филологиясы» мамандығы бойынша магистратураға түсу үшін бағдар сұрақтар тізімі:
    Theoretical grammar пәні бойынша

    1. Non-finite verbs

    A non-finite verb (also known as a verbal) is the term used to describe a verb that is not showing tense. In other words, it a verb form which is not acting like a verb (or, at least, the type of verb you need to form a sentence). There are three types of non-finite verbs: gerundsinfinitives, and participles. Look at these examples (non-finite verbs shaded): 1) I hate camping.(Camping is a non-finite verb. In fact, it is a gerund, i.e., a noun formed from a verb. The give away for a gerund is the -ing ending.) 2) I want to go there.(To go is a non-finite verb. It is an infinitive, i.e., the base form of a verb. The giveaway for an infinitive is often, but not always, the to before it.) 3) We ate our roasted marshmallows.(Roasted is a non-finite verb. It is a participle, a type of adjective. There is no real giveaway for a participle, but lots of participles end in -ed and -ing.)


    1. Noun. The category of case


    The category of case. The noun is a notional part of speech possessing the meaning of substantivity. Case expresses the relation of a word to another word in the word-group or sentence. The category of case: the Common Case, The Possessive Case. The scope of meanings rendered by the Genitive Case is the following :a)Possessive Genitive : Mary’s father – Mary has a father; b)Subjective G.: The doctor’s arrival – The doctor has arrived;c)Objective G. : The man’s release – The man was released;d)Adverbial G. : Two hour’s work – X worked for two hours;e)Equation G. : a mile’s distance – the distance is a mile;f)Genitive of destination: children’s books – books for children;g)Mixed Group: yesterday’s paper, Nick’s school. There is no universal point of view as to the case system in English. Different scholars stick to a different number of cases.
    The category of case.

    Case expresses the relation of a word to another word in the word-group or sentence (my sister’s coat). The category of case correlates with the objective category of possession. The case category in English is realized through the opposition: The Common Case :: The Possessive Case (sister :: sister’s). However, in modern linguistics the term “genitive case” is used instead of the “possessive case” because the meanings rendered by the “`s” sign are not only those of possession. The scope of meanings rendered by the Genitive Case is the following :

    1. Possessive Genitive : Mary’s father – Mary has a father,

    2. Subjective Genitive: The doctor’s arrival – The doctor has arrived,

    3. Objective Genitive : The man’s release – The man was released,

    4. Adverbial Genitive : Two hour’s work – X worked for two hours,

    5. Equation Genitive : a mile’s distance – the distance is a mile,

    6. Genitive of destination: children’s books – books for children,

    7. Mixed Group: yesterday’s paper

    Nick’s school cannot be reduced to one nucleus

    John’s word

    To avoid confusion with the plural, the marker of the genitive case is represented in written form with an apostrophe. This fact makes possible disengagement of –`s form from the noun to which it properly belongs. E.g.: The man I saw yesterday’s son, where -`s is appended to the whole group (the so-called group genitive). It may even follow a word which normally does not possess such a formant, as in somebody else’s book.

    There is no universal point of view as to the case system in English. Different scholars stick to a different number of cases.

    1. There are two cases. The Common one and The Genitive;

    2. There are no cases at all, the form `s is optional because the same relations may be expressed by the ‘of-phrase’: the doctor’s arrival – the arrival of the doctor;

    3. There are three cases: the Nominative, the Genitive, the Objective due to the existence of objective pronouns me, him, whom;

    4. Case Grammar. Ch.Fillmore introduced syntactic-semantic classification of cases. They show relations in the so-called deep structure of the sentence. According to him, verbs may stand to different relations to nouns. There are 6 cases:

    1. Agentive Case (A) John opened the door;

    2. Instrumental case (I) The key opened the door; John used the key to open the door;

    3. Dative Case (D) John believed that he would win (the case of the animate being affected by the state of action identified by the verb);

    4. Factitive Case (F) The key was damaged ( the result of the action or state identified by the verb);

    5. Locative Case (L) Chicago is windy;

    6. Objective case (O) John stole the book.



    The Category of Case in Nouns

    The problem of the number of cases in English has given rise to different theories which

    were based on the different ways of approaching the description of English grammatical structure.

    Case is an indication of a relation in which the noun stands to some other word.

    H. Sweet's (42) conception of the number of cases in English doubtful. He is not sure

    whether in English there are five or two cases. He writes: “English has only one inflected case, the

    genitive /man’s, men’s/, the uninflected base constituting the common case / man, men /, which is

    equivalent to the nominative, vocative, accusative and dative of such a language as Latin”.

    As we see he is under a certain influence of the Latin grammar. If we treat the English

    language out of the facts of Latin, then we'll really have to acknowledge the existence of five

    cases. But the facts of English made Sweet identify only two.

    O. Curme (26) considers that of many case endings once used English has preserved only one, - 1st of the

    genitive. Apart from the genitive relation, these grammatical relations are now indicated by the position of the noun

    with regard to the verb or prepositions which have taken the place of the old inflectional endings / He distinguishes

    four cases:

    1. Nominative-performs 3 functions:

    subject, predicate and direct object

    2. Accusative - performs 3 functions: object, adverbial modifier, predicate.

    The dog bit my brother /obj./

    He stayed an hour /adverbial acc/

    I believed to be him /predicate/

    3. Dative: When an action directed toward smb:

    He makes coat for John.

    4. Genitive: girl's ...

    O. Jespersen (33), (34) distinguishes two cases: common and genitive.

    M. Bryant (24) is of the same opinion:

    H. Whitehall (43) distinguishes two cases in nouns on analogy with the pronouns which can substitute for

    them: nominative and objective.

    He says: "The so-called possessive case is best thought of as a method of transforming a noun into a

    modifier" ...

    Among the Russian grammarians we find different views on the problem of case system in Modern English

    nouns.

    B.A. Ilyish (15) considers that – ‘s is no longer a case inflexion in the classical sense of a word. Unlike

    such classical inflections, -‘s may be attached:

    a) to adverbs: yesterday's events

    b) to a word group: Mary and John's apartment

    c) to a whole clause: the man I saw yesterday’s son.

    Ilyish concludes that the – ‘s morpheme gradually develops into a "form-word", a kind of

    particle serving to convey the meanings of belonging, possession”.

    G.U. Vorontsova (11) does not recognize -'s as case morpheme. She treats it as a

    "postposition", "a purely syntactical form - word resembling a preposition", used as a sign of

    syntactical dependence". Her arguments are as follows:

    1. The use of-'s is optional /her brother's, of her brother/.

    2. It is used with a limited group of nouns outside which it occurs very seldom.

    3. -'s is used both in the singular and in the plural which is not incident to case morphemes.

    e.g. мальчик – а – мальчиков

    4. It occurs in very few plurals, only those with the irregular formation of the plural

    member: oxen's, but cows

    5. -'s does not make an inseparable part of the structure of word. It may be placed at some

    distance from the head-word of an attributive group.

    To Khaimovich and Rogovskaya (22) -' s still function as a case morpheme, because:

    1. The-'s morpheme is mostly attached to individual nouns, not noun groups /in 96 %/.

    2. It's general meaning – “the relation of a noun to another word” - is a typical case

    meaning.

    3. The fact that -‘s occurs, as a rule, with a more or less limited group of words bears

    testimony to its not being a "preposition like form word". The use of the preposition is determined,

    chiefly by the noun it introduces: on /in/ under the table ...

    4. oxen’s - cows' /z/, /θ/ and /of/ alternants: identical meanings and in complementary distribution.

    5. –‘s not a “preposition like word” since it has no vowel as it is found in other prepositions in English.

    3. Noun. The category of gender

    The category of gender. A classification of nouns, primarily according to sex; and secondarily according to some fancied or imputed quality associated with sex. Unlike the Romance languages, English has three genders for nouns and pronouns: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Generally, the English language uses natural gender rather than grammatical gender — that is, the gender of a word is usually based on its biology.
    The term “gender” is opposed to the term “sex” (пол). The first term (gender) is a pure grammatical term

    which deals with the grammatical expression of grammatical gender, i.e. the expression of masculine, feminine and

    neuter genders. The second word (sex) is used as a common word for both male and female. Thus, it is often used to

    denote biological notions.

    Speaking about the Modern English language we can say that the English nouns do not have a grammatical

    category of gender. It is because that the nouns do not have constant grammatical means to express the gender distinctions. Such a grammatical category is found in Russian which is one the most important grammatical

    phenomenon in this language “категория рода существительного – это несловоизменительная

    синтагматически выявленная морфологическая категория, выражающаяся в способности существительного

    в формах единственного числа относиться избирательно к родовым формам согласуемой (в сказуемом -

    координируемой) с ним словоформы: письменный стол, большое дерево; Вечер наступил; Девочка гуляла

    бы; Окно открыто; Ночь холодная. Морфологическая категория рода выявляется в формах единственного

    числа, однако она принадлежит существительному как слову в целом, во всей системе его форм. Категорию

    рода образуют три незамкнутых ряда морфологических форм, в каждый такой ряд входят формы разных

    слов, объединённых общим для них морфологическим значением рода – мужского, женского или среднего”.

    Морфологическое значение рода существительного – это такое значение, которое обуславливает

    собою: 1) способность существительных определяться прилагательными со следующими флексиями в

    форме именительного падежа единственного числа: - ой, -ий, ый - мужской род (большой стол, синий свет,

    добрый человек), -ая, -яя – женский род (большая книга, синяя тетрадь); -ое, -ее – средний род (большое

    окно, синее небо)…” (19)

    It becomes clear that in Russian we find three grammatical genders -masculine, feminine and neuter as well

    as in the personal pronouns in the 3rd person singular – он, она, оно. These pronouns, as a rule, replace nouns in

    accordance with their gender. Nouns denoting persons may be either masculine or feminine - according to the sex of

    the person usually denoted by them. Nouns denoting inanimate objects may be of masculine, feminine and neuter.

    If nouns in the nominative case (им. падеж) singular form have no special ending, and no soft sign

    (мягкий знак) at the end, they are included into the masculine gender: дом, семья.

    If in the same case and form they have the endings -a or -я (ручка, станция), they are included into the

    feminine gender.

    If nouns have the endings -o or -e (радио, замечание) they are in neutral gender.

    Nouns ending in "ь" (soft sign – мягкий знак) are either masculine (портфель - он) or feminine (тетрадь -

    она).

    In the English language we do not find such phenomenon. Because of this fact the Russian and the most

    other foreign grammarians think that English does not have the grammatical category of gender. “English has no

    gender: the nouns of English cannot be classified in terms of agreement with articles, adjectives (or verbs)” (38),

    (20)

    In old English there were three genders with their own markers. B.A.Ilyish writes the following in this

    respect: "Three grammatical categories are represented in the OE nouns, just as in many other Germanic and Indo-

    European languages: gender, number and case. Of these three gender is a lexical-grammatical category, that is,

    every noun with all its forms belong to gender (masculine, feminine or neuter).

    But in Modern English the meaning of gender may be expressed by the help of different other means:

    1. gender may be indicated by a change of words that is, by the help of lexic-semantic means: man –

    woman, cock (rooster) – hen, bull-cow, Arthur, Ann, Edgar, Helen and so on.

    2. gender may be indicated by the addition of a word that is, by syntactic means examples: Grandfather –

    grandmother, manservant – maidservant, male cat – female cat or he cat – she cat and so on.

    3. gender may be expressed by the use of suffixes, examples, host – hostess (хозяин – хозяйка), hero –

    heroine (герой - героиня), tiger – tigress (тигр - тигрица). There are opinions according to which these suffixes are

    morphological means, thus they are grammatical means and because of this fact one may consider that English has

    the grammatical category of gender. But it can hardly be accepted.

    A.I. Smirnitsky (20) gives convincible counter-arguments on this question. Here it is: “Однако на самом

    деле и здесь выражение ≪рода≫ относится не к грамматике, а к лексике. Слово actor – ≪мужского рода≫, а

    actress – ≪женского рода≫ потому, что это соответствует реальным внеязыковым фактам, а не вследствие

    особенностей склонения или каких-либо других формальных грамматических особенностей данных слов.

    Слово actress по сравнению с actor обозначает реально иное живое существо женского пола, и соотношение

    actor – actress является по существу таким же, как соотношение слов father отец – mother мать … этот

    суффикс является не грамматическим, а лексическим, словообразующим. (его можно сопоставить,

    например, с уменьшительным суффиксом – у в doggy и т.п.). Следовательно, в соотношении actor – actress

    нет ничего противостоящего общим закономерностям выражения ≪родовых≫ различий в системе

    английских существительных”

    There is a regular correspondence between English nouns and the personal pronouns in the third person

    singular he, she, it. But this correspondence is not equal with the one which is found in Russian. In the Russian

    language this correspondence is based on both the lexical-semantic and the grammatical aspects but in English it is

    based on only the lexical-semantic aspect, that is "he" is usually used to indicate real biological male sex, "she"

    indicates real biological female sex and “It” is used to indicate inanimate objects. It is important to remember that

    the pronouns he, she, may also be used with regard to inanimate nouns. Such a use of these pronouns is explained by

    the cultural and historical backgrounds and it has nothing to do with the grammatical expression of the meaning of

    gender. Examples: moon - she, ship - she, love - he and so on.

    Summing up the problem of gender in Modern English, it is important to say that:

    1. gender is the grammatical distinction between; masculine, feminine and neuter;

    2. the lexical - grammatical category of gender existed only in the OE period but in ME (middle English)

    3. in Modern English we find only lexical-semantic meanings of gender, that is, the gender distinction is

    based on the semantic principle;

    4. English has certain lexical and syntactic means to express a real biological sex.
    4. Verb. Notional parts of speech

    Verb as a Part of Speech

    Words like to read, to live, to go, to jump are called verbs because of their following features.

    1. they express the meanings of action and state;

    2. they have the grammatical categories of person, number, tense, aspect, voice, mood, order and posteriority

    most of which have their own grammatical means;

    3. the function of verbs entirely depends on their forms: if they in finite form they fulfill only one function –

    predicate. But if they are in non-finite form then they can fulfill any function in the sentence but predicate;

    they may be part of the predicate;

    4. verbs can combine actually with all the parts of speech, though they do not combine with articles, with

    some pronouns. It is important to note that the combinability of verbs mostly depends on the syntactical

    function of verbs in speech;

    5. verbs have their own stem-building elements. They are:

    postfixes: -fy (simplify, magnify, identify…)

    -ize (realize, fertilize, standardize…)

    -ate (activate, captivate…)

    prefixes: re- (rewrite, restart, replant…)

    mis- (misuse, misunderstand, misstate…)

    un- (uncover, uncouple, uncrown…)

    de- (depose, depress, derange…) and so on.
    5. Functional parts of speech

    Now, when we have viewed all the notional words we may get down to the study of

    structural or functional parts of speech. To this group of words traditionally prepositions,

    conjunctions, articles and some auxiliary words are referred. Some scholars include adverbs, linkverbs,

    and even modal-verbs (Fries). It is important to consider the conceptions of some prestructural

    grammarians.

    H. Sweet (42) in the sentence "The earth is round" differs two types of words: full words and form words or

    empty words: earth and round are full words while the and is are form words. He states that the and is are "form

    words because they are words in form only ... they are entirely devoid of meaning". Is does not have a meaning of

    its own but is used to connect subject and predicate. Thus though it has no meaning of its own, independent

    meaning, it has a definite grammatical function - it is a grammatical form-word. But "the" has not even a

    grammatical function and serves only to show that earth is to be taken as terrestrical globe and therefore it is a part

    of the word as the derivational prefix un - in unknown. In treating form-words by Sweet one of the most valuable

    point is the following his conception. He states that very often a word combines the function of a form - word with

    something of the independent meaning of a full word. To this type of words he includes words like become in he

    became a prime minister. As full word it has the meaning of “change” and the function of the form - word is. The

    above sentence consists of "He changed his condition + he is a prime minister". Now his conception schematically

    may be shown as follows:

    full words - intermediate stratum - form - word.

    Facts like these bear the proof that it is difficult to draw a definite line between full words and form words.

    O. Jespersen (33), (34): suggests that adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections should be called

    particles. He sees a parallel in the relation between an adverb and a preposition and the relation between intransitive

    and a transitive verb. According to his statement there is the same difference between the verbs in He sings, He

    plays and He sings a song, He plays the piano. "Yet in spite of these differences in verb no one assigns them to

    different part of speech. Therefore why we should assign to different parts of speech words like on and since.

    Put your cap on (adv.)

    Put your cap on your head (preposition); and

    I have not seen her since (adv.)

    I have not seen her since I arrived (preposition)

    Because of these facts they may be termed by one word, i.e. "Particles".

    6. Simple sentence

    Simple sentences are divided into two-member and one-member sentences. A two-member sentence has two members – a subject and a predicate. A two-member sentence may be complete or incomplete. It is complete when it has a subject and a predicate. It is incomplete when one of the principal parts or both of them are missing, but can be easily understood from the context. A one-member sentence is a sentence having only one member which is neither the subject nor the predicate. One-member sentences are generally used in descriptions and in emotional speech. If the main part of a one-member sentence is expressed by a noun, the sentence is called nominal. The noun may be modified by attributes. E.g. Dusk – of a summer night. (Dreiser) Freedom! Bells ringing out, flowers, kisses, wine. (Heym). The main part of a one-member sentence is often expressed by an infinitive. E.g. To die out there – lonely, wanting them, wanting home! (Galsworthy). Simple sentences, both two-member and one-member, can be unextended and extended. A sentence consisting only of the primary or principal parts is called an unextended sentence. An extended sentence is a sentence consisting of the subject, the predicate and one or more secondary parts (objects, attributes, or adverbial modifiers). Examples of simple sentences include the following: 1)Joe waited for the train."Joe" = subject, "waited" = verb. 2) The train was late."The train" = subject, "was" = verb. 3) Mary and Samantha took the bus."Mary and Samantha" = compound subject, "took" = verb. 4) I looked for Mary and Samantha at the bus station."I" = subject, "looked" = verb
    7. Complex sentence

    A complex sentence consists of one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.

    The first thing we need to do to analyze a complex sentence is to find out the main or principal clause. Study the example sentence given below. Whenever he was asked that question, the old man who lived in that house answered that the earth was flat. The sentence given above consists of four clauses. A sentence that has two finite verbs has two clauses. So, in the example given above the finite verbs are: was asked, lived, answered and was. Analysis . 1. The old man answered. (Main clause) 2. Whenever he was asked that question (Adverb clause of time modifying the verb answered.) 3. Who lived in that house (Adjective clause modifying the noun man.) 4. That the earth was flat (Noun clause which acts as the object of the main verb answered.) Note that an adverb clause of time says when something happens. An adverb clause of place says where something happens. Adverbs usually express ideas such as time, place, manner, frequency etc. A noun clause usually acts as the subject or object of the verb in another clause. In the example given above, the noun clause is the object of the verb in the main clause. I think that he pocketed the mobile phone which was lying on the table. There are three finite verbs: think, pocketed and was lying. Analysis. 1. I think. (Main clause)2. That he pocketed the mobile phone (Noun clause which acts as the object of the verb think. 3. Which was lying on the table. (Adjective clause which modifies the noun mobile phone.)
    8. Compound sentence

    A compound sentence is a sentence which consists of two or more clauses coordinated with each other. A clause is part of a sentence which has a subject and a predicate of its own. In a compound sentence the clauses may be connected: (a) syndetically, i.e. by means of coordinating conjunctions (and, or, else, but, etc.) or conjunctive adverbs (otherwise, however, nevertheless, yet, etc.); (b) asyndetically, i.e. without a conjunction or conjunctive adverb. We can distinguish the following types of coordination: 1. Copulative coordination, expressed by the conjunctions ‘and, nor, neither…nor, not only…but (also)’. With the help of these conjunctions the statement expressed in the clause is simply added to that expressed in another. 2. Disjunctive coordination, expressed by the conjunctions ‘or, else, or else, either…or’, and the conjunctive adverb ‘otherwise’. By these a choice is offered between the statements expressed in two clauses. 3.Adversative coordination, expressed by the conjunctions ‘but, while, whereas’ and the conjunctive adverbs ‘nevertheless, still, yet’. These are conjunctions and adverbs connecting two clauses contrasted in meaning. 4. Causative-consecutive coordination, expressed by the conjunctions ‘for, so’ and the conjunctive adverbs ‘therefore, accordingly, consequently, hence’. ‘For’ introduces coordinate clauses explaining the preceding statement. ‘Therefore, so, consequently, hence, accordingly’ introduce coordinate clauses denoting cause, consequence and result. Examples of compound sentences include the following: 1)Joe waited for the train, but the train was late. 2)I looked for Mary and Samantha at the bus station, but they arrived at the station before noon and left on the bus before I arrived. 3)Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon, and they left on the bus before I arrived. 4)Mary and Samantha left on the bus before I arrived, so I did not see them at the bus station.

    9. Sentence. General
    It is rather difficult to define the sentence as it is connected with many lingual and extra lingual aspects – logical, psychological and philosophical. We will just stick to one of them - according to academician G.Pocheptsov, the sentence is the central syntactic construction used as the minimal communicative unit that has its primary predication, actualises a definite structural scheme and possesses definite intonation characteristics. This definition works only in case we do not take into account the difference between the sentence and the utterance. The distinction between the sentence and the utterance is of fundamental importance because the sentence is an abstract theoretical entity defined within the theory of grammar while the utterance is the actual use of the sentence. In other words, the sentence is a unit of language while the utterance is a unit of speech.

    The most essential features of the sentence as a linguistic unit are a) its structural characteristics – subject-predicate relations (primary predication), and b) its semantic characteristics – it refers to some fact in the objective reality. It is represented in the language through a conceptual reality:

    conceptual reality proposition







    objective reality lingual representation objective situation predicative unit
    We may define the proposition as the main predicative form of thought. Basic predicative meanings of the typical English sentence are expressed by the finite verb that is immediately connected with the subject of the sentence (primary predication).

    To sum it up, the sentence is a syntactic level unit, it is a predicative language unit which is a lingual representation of predicative thought (proposition).


    1. Different approaches to the study of the sentence.




    1. Principal and secondary parts of the sentence.

    2. Immediate constituents of the sentence. IC analysis.

    To grasp the real structure of the English sentence, one must understand not only words that occur but also the principles of their arrangement. Each language has its own way of structural grouping. English has dichotomous phrase structure, which means that the phrase in English can always be divided into two elements (constituents) until we get down to the single word. All groups of words are arranged in levels. The name given by linguists to these different levels of relationship is immediate constituents.

    Thus, one way of analyzing a sentence is to cut it to its immediate constituents, that is, to single out different levels of meaning:
    The old man saw a black dog there S

    NP VP

    Det NP VP D

    A N V NP

    Det NP

    NP VP A N

    It is obvious that dividing a sentence into ICs does not provide much information. Nevertheless, it can sometimes prove useful if we want to account for the ambiguity of certain constructions. A classic example is the phrase old men and women which can be interpreted in two different ways. Ambiguity of this kind is referred to as syntactic ambiguity. By providing IC analysis we can make the two meanings clear:

    old men and women old men and women



    1. Oppositional analysis.

    The oppositional method in syntax means correlating different sentence types: they possess common features and differential features. Differential features serve the basis for analysis.

    E.g. two member sentence :: one member sentence (John worked:: John! Work! Or: I speak English :: I don’t speak English.

    1. Constructional analysis.

    According to the constructional approach, not only the subject and the predicate but also all the necessary constituents of primary predication constitute the main parts because they are constructionally significant. Therefore, the secondary parts of the sentence are sometimes as necessary and important as the main ones. If we omit the object and the adverbial modifier in the following sentences they will become grammatically and semantically unmarked: Bill closed the door; She behaved well.

    The structural sentence types are formed on the basis of kernels (basic structures). Three main types of propositional kernels may be distinguished: N V, N is A, N is N. However, if we take into account the valent properties of the verbs (their obligatory valency) the group will become larger (8 kernels), e.g. N1 V N2 N3: John gave Ann the book, N1 V N2: I see a house.

    The kernel sentences form the basis for syntactic derivation. Syntactic derivation lies in producing more complex sentences

    Syntactic processes may be internal and external. Internal syntactic processes involve no changes in the structure of the parts of the sentence. They occur within one and the same part of the sentence (subject, etc.). External syntactic processes are those that cause new relations within a syntactic unit and lead to appearance of a new part of the sentence.

    The internal syntactic processes are:

    Expansion Compression

    The phone was ringing and ringing They were laughing and singing
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