Английский, печать!. Контрольная работа защищена с оценкой Л. А. Емельянова 2019 г. Контрольная работа по дисциплине Английский язык ягту 38. 03. 01. 62
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное
Учреждение высшего образования
«Ярославский государственный технический университет»
Кафедра «Иностранных языков»
Контрольная работа защищена
с оценкой ______________
__________ Л.А. Емельянова
КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА ПО ДИСЦИПЛИНЕ:
студент гр. ЗЭ-38а
___________ Н.Э. Миробян
«___» ___________ 2019 г.
Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
UNDERGROUND MASTER PLAN
A city growing inside bedrock
The Underground Master Plan of Helsinki reserves designated space for public utilities and important private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The Master Plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city’s underground construction work, and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities.
Since the 1960s, the City of Helsinki has been adept at widely utilizing the opportunities for underground construction. More than 400 premises and over 200 kilometers of tunnels have already been built underground. Furthermore, there are more than 200 new reservations in the register for long-term underground projects. Demand for underground facilities in central Helsinki has grown considerably and, at the same time, the need to control construction work has increased substantially.
As the city’s structure becomes denser, more and more facilities suited for different purposes are being built underground. There is also a growing need to connect underground premises to each other to form coherent and interrelated complexes.
When planning and carrying out new building projects, it is important to make sure that space reservations for public long-term projects, such as tunnels and ducts for traffic and technical maintenance, are retained for future construction. The growth in underground construction and planning and the need to coordinate different projects led to the need to prepare an Underground Master Plan for Helsinki. Having legal status, the Master Plan also reinforces the systematic nature and quality of underground construction and the exchange of information related to it.
Efforts have been made to alleviate the great demand for underground space in the city centre by allocating new rock resource areas suited for underground construction outside Helsinki’s central area. Changing the purpose of rock facilities that have already been built is difficult, which further emphasizes the importance of underground master planning.
Underground reservations and existing facilities/tunnels have been divided into the following categories on the basis of their main purpose:
1. Community technical systems
2. Traffic and parking
3. Maintenance and storage
4. Services and administration
5. Unnamed rock resource (does not yet have a designated
The reservations in the Master Plan are divided into the following four planning levels:
• Project plan
• Needs specification
•Provisional space requirement
• Space requirement
Facilities serving community technical systems (such as energy and water supply and telecommunications) are large-scale closed networks by nature. These facilities are composed of several different functions and the utility tunnels connecting them. Utility tunnels are located at such a depth that space reservations for them do not have a significant effect on other underground premises.
According to the law, the owner of a property has control over the underground part of the property, though the vertical extent of ownership is not specifically defined in legislation. When interpreting the extent of ownership, the lower boundary of a property has been limited to the depth where it can be technically utilized. In practice this means the depth of 6 m from the lowest point of the building lot. City of Helsinki charges also those companies using underground space, but the rent of “the underground building lot” is only c. 50% of the corresponding ground-level rent. Anyone constructing facilities underground must obtain agreement on the right to use the underground construction site. Right of ownership can be established either through voluntary transactions, agreements or redemption based on legislation. The prerequisite for obtaining a building permit is that the applicant has control over the construction site.
The cadastral system currently specifies properties two-dimensionally, meaning that registering possession rights to different levels or, for example, proving that an underground facility can be pledged as collateral, can be problematic. On 11 May 2006, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry assigned a working group to study the development of a three-dimensional cadastral system in Finland. One of the ideas behind this is that all 3D registrations of properties should be based on a town plan. Space reservations presented in the Underground Master Plan, which has legal status, would thus also have a determining effect on whether an underground property is eligible to be registered.
Underground construction has an extremely important and central role to play in the development of the city structure of Helsinki and the adjoining areas, helping to create a more unified and eco-efficient structure. The Underground Master Plan sets the framework for further planning, enhances the overall economy efficiency of facilities located underground and boosts the safety of these facilities and their use. The planning regulations are broad, allowing facilities to have different purposes.
The Master Plan shows the most important underground facilities and plans with which the space requirements for confirmed or planned public and private projects can be secured over the longer term. Since the Underground Master Plan has legal status, landowners and authorities are obligated to adhere to it. The Underground Master Plan has some of the same features as a strategic land preservation plan.
It shows land reservations for key projects that are considered important to society at large.
The Underground Master Plan shows both existing and future underground facilities and tunnels. The underground facilities are shown in two colours, grey indicating existing facilities and blue indicating planned facilities. Existing traffic tunnels are portrayed in light grey, while future traffic tunnels are colored light blue. Space reservations on the Master Plan map are presented two-dimensionally.
In the city centre area, approximate floor elevations are indicated using circled figures. Existing vital access links to underground technical maintenance facilities/tunnels are shown on the map with triangles.
The Master Plan also includes rock resources reserved for the construction of as yet unnamed underground facilities, with the aim of identifying good locations for functions suitable for placing underground and which would also reduce the pressures on the city centre’s rock resources. The suitability of rock areas for different purposes will be studied when preparing the town plan.
An initial survey examined the areas and elevation levels in Helsinki which are suited for construction of large, hall-like facilities. A model was used based on rock surface data and applying a standard-sized measurement cave (width 50 m, length 150 m, height 12 m). The model of the bedrock is based on base map data for exposed rock and land surface elevations and point data obtained using drill
machine borings. The survey also took into account local weakness zones and rock resources that have already been put to use.
In general, it can be said that the bedrock in Helsinki is not far below the ground surface, and that there are plenty of locations suitable for construction of underground facilities. Outside the city centre, the survey found 55 rock areas that had a sufficient size for accommodating large underground facilities near major traffic arteries. In many areas, future underground projects can make use of entrances to existing underground facilities, which have been marked with triangles on the Master Plan map.
There are about 40 unnamed rock resource reservations without a designated purpose. The average area of these reservations is 30 ha. Unnamed reservations have a total area of almost 1,400 ha, representing 6.4% of the land area of Helsinki. When selecting these resources, the survey took into account their accessibility, the present and planned ground-level uses of these areas, traffic connections, land ownership and possible recreational, landscape and environmental protection values.
UNDERGROUND MASTER PLAN
A city growing inside bedrock
Further information: Ilkka VÄH
ÄAHO (Mr.), firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP) for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy efficiency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century; at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city's underground construction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to ‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.
Эта статья дает представление об использовании подземного пространства в Хельсинки, Финляндия. В городе есть подземный мастер-план (UMP) для всей его муниципального района, а не только для отдельных частей города. Кроме того, история принятия решений УМЗ описан шаг за шагом. Некоторые примеры использования подземного пространства в других городах также даны. Эта статья посвящена устойчивости вопросов, связанных с использованием городского подземного пространства, в том числе ее вклада в экологически устойчивый и эстетический приемлемый ландшафт, ожидаемая структурной долговечностью и поддержания возможности для развития городов будущих поколений. Подземное планирование повышает общую безопасность и эффективность экономики. Необходимость использования подземного пространства в городских районах, быстро растет с 21-го века; в то же время, необходимость контролировать строительные работы также увеличилась. UMP запасов Хельсинки обозначены места для государственных и частных предприятий в различных подземных областях коренных пород в долгосрочной перспективе. План также обеспечивает основу для управления и контроля над подземными строительными работами города и позволяет подходящие места, которые будут выделены для подземных сооружений. Тампере, третий по численности населения город в Финляндии и самый большой внутренний город в странах Северной Европы, также является хорошим примером города, который принимает меры по использованию подземных ресурсов. Оулу, столица Северной Финляндии, также начал «уходить в подполье». Пример возможности сочетать два города с помощью 80-км подводного туннеля также обсуждается.